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引用 精品资料:英语交际用语专题复习(1)  

2010-04-03 21:26:36|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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引用

刘老师精品资料:英语交际用语专题复习(1)

 ◆ 备考背景:

1、语言必须放在实际的并尽可能不同的情景中运用。

2、语言必须适合具体的交际行为。

3、考核的焦点在于是否达到交际的目的。

4、语言交际行为除了需要语言能力外,还需要文化等其他的能力。

对英语的交际性和实用性的考查,不仅体现在对交际用语文化的考查,还体现在运用交际功能考查其他基础语法点上。

                                                       

(一)对英语交际用语考查的内容与趋势:

一、直接考查考生掌握英语交际固定的表达方式和习惯说法的情况。

1. ---Hello! May I speak to Zhao Hua?  —Yes, ____.

A. My name is Zhao Hua          B. I'm Zhao Hua

C. This is Zhao Hua speaking      D. Zhao Hua is me

2. —Do you mind my taking this seat?—____.

A. Yes, sit down please            B. No, of course not

C. Yes, take it please              D. No, you can't take it

3. —Have a nice weekend!—____.

A. The same to you     B. You do too    C. The same as you   D. You have it too

二、考查考生掌握英美人的风俗习惯,特别是中西文化差异的情况。

4. —You have done the work very well.  —____.

A. Great        B. Thanks          C. Oh, no            D. Not at all

5. ---Thank you very much for your help.  ----______.

  A. No thanks.    B. Don’t thank me   C. You are too kind.   D. You’re welcome.

三、考查考生根据所提供的情景和实际情况,应用语言知识进行合情合理应答的能力。

6. —He is not a friend of yours, is he?   —____. I have never seen him before.

A. No, he isn't    B. No, he is         C. Yes, he is         D. Yes, he isn't

7. —Sorry, I forgot to post the letter for you.  —Never mind, ____ it myself tonight.

A. I'm going to post   B. I'd better post   C. I'll post        D. I'd rather post

四、考查考生准确理解短语用法和句子含义的能力。(这是近年来考查交际用语的新趋势。)

8. —How do you like your English teacher?   —____.

A. Yes, I like him very much   B. No, I don't like him   C. I like him  D. He is very kind

9. —____?   

---She is slim pretty.

A. What's the girl like        B. How do you like the girl

  C. What does the girl like     D. How do you like about the girl

10. ---How often do you eat out?  ---________, but usually once a week.

A. Have no idea    B. It depends    C. As usual       D. Generally speaking

11. ---Will $200_____?  ---I'm afraid not. We need at least 50 more dollars.

A. count          B. satisfy        C. fit            D. do

五、考查语法与句型等。(以下是考查的常见的语法句型)

(A) 特殊疑问句----特殊疑问句的答语通常针对特殊疑问词作出具体的回答。(不要答非所问.)

12. ---Why don't you travel to New York on vacation?   ---________.

A. I don't want to go                         B. Excuse me, because I can't

C. I want to but I haven't got enough money     D. Because I'm going to school today

13. ----What subjects are you studying?   ---________.

A. Yes, I'm study history.                     B. I'm studying now

C. I'm studying philosophy.                   D. I'm doing my homework

14. ---Which language do you speak at home?   ---________.

A. I speak English very well                   B. I can speak English and French

C. English is my mother tongue                D. English, most of the time

15. ----When does the next bus leave for Glasgow?   ---________.

A. I've never been there                       B. The next one is faster

C. They leave every hour                      D. The city is far away

16. ----Excuse me, how far is the airport from here?   ---________.

A. You can take a taxi                         B. It's about thirty miles

C. I'll fly to Sidney.                           D. It's only six hundred dollars

17. ---Can you tell me how much a radio like this costs?   ---________.

A. I'd like to buy it.                           B. It's of very good quality

C. About eighty-five dollars                    D. It depends on how you like it

18. ---Do you mind telling me where you are from?   ---________.

A. Certainly, I'm from London.                 B. Sure, I was born in London

C. Not really, you can do it                     D. Certainly not. I'm from London

19. ---How often do you have listening classes in a week?   ---________.

A. Listening classes are difficult                 B. Last week and the week before

C. They have no listening classes.                D. Every Monday and Friday

20. ---That man alone over there. Who is he?   ---_________.

A. He is a student     B. He is Doctor Took      C. A driver, I suppose   D. He's drunk

 (B) 反意疑问句: 陈述句/祈使句 + 简短的一般疑问句 (前肯定, 后否定; 或: 前否定后肯定)。反意问句的答语应根据实际情况(上下文提供的情景)确定: 内容是肯定的, 就用“Yes, + 肯定”结构回答; 内容是否定的, 则用 “No, + 否定”结构回答.  当前面句子为否定时, 尤要特别小心, 不要搞错。如:

--- It didn't rain yesterday, did it?      ---- 昨天没有下雨,对吗?

---Yes, it did.  --- 不, 下雨了.         ---- No, it didn't.  --- 对, 没有下

21. ---You are not the manager here, are you?   ---________.

A. Yes, I'm not.       B. No, I am       C. Yes, I am        D. No, not at all

22. ---Sue looks good in that new dress, doesn't she?   ---________.

A. Yes, she is         B. No, she isn't    C. Yes, she does     D. No, she didn't

23. ---Joe will come to the party, won't he?   ---________.

A. Oh, yes. I forget.                    B. It's at 8 o'clock

C. Yes, he's bringing his cousin, Sandy    D. Yes, it's a nice party

(C) 选择疑问句: 选择疑问句是问话者提供两个或两个以上答案供对方选择回答的问句, 答语应作出一个明确的选择(也可全部肯定或否定)。不能使用Yes/ No回答。

24. ---What would you like, tea or coffee?   ---________.

  A. Yes, I would       B. Coffee, please.   C. Yes, please     D. It's very nice

25. ---Did you travel to Xi'an by train or by plane?   ---________.

A. It is possible travel by plane.           B. I travel either by train or by planes

C. I traveled by train.                   D. I flew there

(D) 一般疑问句: 一般疑问句通常用yes和no来回答, 时态人称要一致. 注意口语化的回答。

26. ---Have you even been to Tokyo?   ---________.

A. No, I didn't go there last year          B. No, but I hope to go there next year

C. Tokyo is a busy city.                  D. Yes, I will do it next time

27. ---Are there any drug-stores around here?   ---________.

A. Yes, there is one on the left corner      B. Yes, it is

C. No, it isn't                          D. Oh, you must have a cold.

28. ---Do you think the exam will be put off?   ---________.

A. Not good news.  B. The exam is difficult   C. Not likely   D. It was put off yesterday

 (E) 省略倒装句: 省略倒装句的对话首句是肯定句时, 用“So+助动词+主语”或“Me too.”; 首句是否定句时用“Neither+助动词+主语”或“Me neither”.    So it is with sb. (某人的情况也是如此)

29. ---I think the Internet is very useful.   ---________.

A. So do I      B. That's a very good idea   C. Neither do I    D. I do rather go surfing on it

30. ---I don't like the sports programs on Sundays.   ---________.

A. So do I      B. Neither do I         C. So am I        D. Neither am I

31. ---I have been to the Great Wall.   ---________.

A. Neither have I     B. So do I         C. Neither do I    D. So have I

32. ---I haven't seen Belly for ten years.   ---________.

A. Neither have I      B. Neither did I    C. Me too         D. Me neither

(F) 情态动词 MUST: 情态动词must的否定回答, 表示不必时用“No, …needn't/ don’t have to”; 肯定回答, 用“Yes, …must.”

33. ---Must we hand in our homework now?   ---________.

A. Yes, you will     B. Yes, you mustn't    C. No, you needn't   D. No, you mustn't

34. ---Must I do the washing-up tonight?      ----________.

A. No, you mustn't if you don't want.       B. Leave it if you are exhausted

C. Washing-up is really exhausting         D. Washing-up really takes up time

 (G) 祈使句的答语: 常见的有: I will. Thanks.  I won’t.  Certainly.    Of course.

35. ---Do be careful next time.    ---_________.

  A. I do      B. I can     C. I will     D. I am.

Keys: 高考对英语交际用语考查的内容与趋势:

1----5  CBABD   6----10 ACDAB    11---15 DCCDC  16----20 BCDDB

21—25 CCCBC  26----30 BACAB    31—35 DDCBC

英语复习之交际用语(二)

高考英语交际用语考点:

交际最基本的要求是:委婉、有礼、得体、连贯、符合文化习惯。(选择答案的依据所在)

高考对日常用语的考查涉及《高中英语课程标准》所列举的全部41项内容,部分语法知识以及一些常识性的文化知识。可以说,内容非常广泛。下文将列举的是考试常见的交际用语考点。

一、问候:(介绍、告别)

中西文化对比

在日常交谈中,英国人彼此见面常常喜欢以“Good morning/afternoon/evening. Hello/Hi.”打招呼;并且喜欢以谈论天气(Nice day, isn’t it?) 作为交谈的开始;美国人见面常常问身体等;而中国人却常问“吃过饭了吗?”

基本用语

a. 见面问候:Good morning/afternoon/evening.   Hello/Hi.

b. 代向某人问候:Best wishes/regards to...=give one's regards to sb = give one's best wishes to sb = give one's best love to sb = give one's best regards to sb.

c. 替某人向……问好: say“Hi”/“Hello”to sb from sb = give one's regards to sb.

Please remember me to....             回答用语: ----I will. Thanks.

d. How do you do?  (初次见面通常用语)  ---How do you do?

How are you? (比较熟悉的人之间用语)  ---Fine, thank you, and you?/Very well, thank you.

How are you getting along with...? (你近来...可好?)  --Every is fine!

How are you doing?  (您工作还顺利吧?)   --- I'm just great!

How is everything?  (一切还好吧?)        ---Very(quite)well,thank you!

How is your vacation/holiday(s)/Christmas Day/weekend? (假期怎么样?)  --- Not bad!

What's up?        (近来可忙?)   ---Couldn't be better, thank you!

What's going on?   (近来可好?)   --- Just so so. (一般; 还可以)

注意要点

1. “Hello” 既可用于问候,有时也用于引起对方注意,打电话或叫人,多在熟人之间使用,而“Hi”的用法比“Hello”更随便,口语中多见。

2. Hello!和Hi!是互相熟悉的人之间的招呼语,比较随便,一天中任何时候都可以用。有时,后面还可加上对方的名字,以示亲热。Good evening! 一般用于晚上(通常是九点以前). 需要注意的是,不可用Good day来打招呼。Good morning!省略good 时,也可用来打招呼,但一般用于比较熟悉的人之间。

3. “How are you?” 则用于询问对方身体情况答语可根据实际情况,如:“Fine/ Very well,thank you.”  注意: (very) good不能用来表示身体健康. 假如身体确实不太舒服并想让对方知道,不妨说Not too well, I'm afraid.

4. 对于不认识的人,想要他/她停下的说法:Hey, Sir/ Madam!   Just a moment, Sir/ Madam.

5. 与英美人见面寒暄时,不应问及他(她)的年龄、婚否、收入等个人隐私情况。

★ 介绍

基本用语

a. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms/Comrade....  May I introduce you to...? I’d like you to meet....

b. How do you do?  Nice/Glad/Pleased to see/meet you. Nice meeting you…

c. My name is....  I’m a(student/teacher, etc.). May I know your name? Margaret, can you introduce me to her? Let me introduce you to others.

Meet my sister Cathy.   Bill, this is Tom.   Hi, I'm Susan, this is my calling card.

注意要点

“Nice to meet you.”与 “Nice to see you.” 有一点区别。前者的意思是初次见面(认识你很高兴)被人介绍相识后的寒暄用语。后者与前者在意思上相同,但是用于熟人之间(一段时间未见面后再次相遇)两者回答用语与问候语相同。

Nice to meet you.主要表示初次见面时的问候,而Nice meeting you.则是初次见面分手时的用语。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

★ 告别

中西文化对比

有聚总有散!客人要走, 中国人常常会极力留客; 留不住, 也会送客很远很远; 嘴里说: “慢走!”

客人要走, 英美人决不留客, 通常一句“Good-bye!”了事, 出门一概不理! 对于客人的到访, 时常还要表示感谢: Thank you for coming.

基本用语

1. 直接的告别话语有:Good bye! (Bye bye! Bye!) See you (tomorrow)! See you later!

So long!   Farewell!   Good night.

2. 委婉的告别辞有: I'd like to say goodbye to everyone.  I'm calling to say goodbye.

I’m afraid I must be leaving/off now.  I think it’s time for us to leave now.

3. 其他带有祝愿以及叮嘱等的告别辞有:I'll look forward to seeing you soon.

Let's hope we’ll meet again.   Hope to see you again.   Drop in anytime you like.

注意要点

a. Good night./Night!只限于晚上告别或上床睡觉时使用。

b. Have a nice day!限于白天告别时用 (如早餐后家人互相道别)。

c. 告别前通常要说一两句客套话,如:I'm afraid I must be off (going) now. 长久告别时,还可同时表达希望今后多联系 (Keep/Get in touch),要对方保重身体 (Take care),问候对方家人 (Please send my best wishes/regards to your family.)等。

    1. ---Hello, Sally. How's everything?  ---__________.

A. Good for you    B. Oh, I agree    C. That's right    D. Just so so

2. ---How are things with you, Bill?  ---__________.

A. Hello, sure   B. I am terribly busy these days  C. Mind you own business  D. See you later

3. ---Good night and thanks again.   ---__________.

A. You can't say that   B. Oh, no. It's what I can do  C. How can you see that.  D. Good night.

4. ---Well, it's getting late. I must be going. Thank you again for inviting me to the party? ---___.

A. Oh, it's so late   B. Thank you for coming   C. Oh, so soon   D. I really had a happy time.

5. ---Mrs. Johnson, I've come to say good-bye.  ---__________.

A. See you next time    B. Have a pleasant journey. I will miss you

C. That's OK          D. Thank you for saying that.

6. ---- It’s getting late. I'm afraid I must be going now.  ---- OK. ______ .

A. Take it easy     B. Go slowly    C. Stay longer     D. See you

7. --- Let me introduce myself. I’m Albert.  ---- ______________.

A. What a pleasure     B. It’s my pleasure   C. Pleased to meet you    D. I’m very pleased

8. Jane: Tom, let me introduce you to Lucy.  Tom:______.   Lucy: Hi, I’m Lucy Lee.

  A. What’s your name?   B. Hello.    C. Nice to see you.    D. Sorry, not right now.

二、邀请(约会)

      中西文化对比

西方人在发出“邀请”前常有一个引子,尤其在客气的场合,如可先这样问一下对方是否有空:Are you free this evening? 而Would you like to...和I'd like to invite you to...的句式较为客气,带有商量、询问的口气,多用于不知对方能否接受邀请的场合。

a. 接受他人邀请时通常还要表示一下感谢。常用: Yes, I’d love to.

Yes, it’s very kind/nice of you;              Yes, with pleasure.

b. 如果是稍有保留地接受,可这样说:I will if I can.

It's very kind of you to invite me, but I'm not sure if I can come.

c. 拒绝他人的邀请一般不直接说No, 而要婉言谢绝(通常会说明理由),并要声明自己是愿意接受“邀请”的,但因某种原因不能接受,并表示歉意或感谢。常用:

I’d like to, but I’m too busy. /   I’m sorry I can’t, but…

I really enjoy it, but I’ve got to go now.

I wish I could accept your invitation, but I’m afraid I don’t have time to go.

Thank you for your kindness, but I’ve got an appointment at that time.

基本用语

a. Will/ Would/ Can/ Could you come to...?  Would you like to…     I'd like to invite you to...&

b. Yes, I'd love/ be glad/ happy to(...).   Yes, I'd like to. / I'll be glad to.  Of course. I'll be glad to.

Oh yes, thank you.    Yes, it's very kind/nice of you.      OK. Thank you very much.   

Yes, great.  Sure, why not?  Sure. That's a good idea.      Yes, with pleasure.

c. I'd love to, but....          I'm sorry, but I can't.

★ 约会:

基本用语

a. Are you/Will you be free this afternoon/tomorrow?

How about tomorrow morning/afternoon/evening?  Shall we meet at 4:30 at...?

b. Yes, that’s all right.  Yes, I’ll be free then.

c. No, I won’t be free then. But I’ll be free....         d. All right. See you then.

交际例句

1.-- Are you free next Wednesday evening? I want to go to the cinema with you?

-- Yes, I'd like to.

2.-- When shall we meet, today or tomorrow?  -- I don't mind. Either time is OK.

3.-- Are you free later today?               -- Sorry, I'm free every day except today.

4.-- Are you free this afternoon?            -- Oh no. Will this evening be all right?

5.-- Would you like to join us? (喜欢和我们一起吗?)    Shall we dance?(我们可以跳个舞吗?)

1. ---Would you like to have a dinner with us this evening?    ---________.

A. OK, but I have to go to a meeting now       B. No, I can't

C. Sorry, I will go to airport this evening.       D. I don't know

2. ---We are going to have a dancing party tonight. Would you like to join us?    ---________.

A. Yes, it's very kind of you  B. Of course not. I have no idea 

C. No, I can't  D. That's all right.

3. ---Can you come over for dinner with us?    ---________.

A. I'd love to, but I have a meeting tonight      B. It doesn't matter

C. No, I don't like                           D. Oh, that sounds well

4. ---I have got two tickets for the match. Shall we go and watch it together?    ---________.

A. The tickets must be expensive.              B. The match must be exciting

C. Why not? Let's go                        D. The place is too far away

5. ---I have an appointment with Dr. Johnson.       ---________.

A. The appointment is put off                 B. You look sick and weak

C. Please wait for a minute. He is busy now.     D. Tell me your ID number

6. ---- Let’s go to a movie after work, OK?  ---- ______ .

A. Not at all.            B. Why not?     C. Never mind.         D. What of it?

三、感谢和应答:

中西文化对比

1. 在英语文化中人们常常通过赞扬来鼓励某些合乎自己心意的行为,像You did a good job! Well done, everyone. You look nice. That's a beautiful shirt you're wearing. You are very clever. 而对他人的赞美,最普通、常用的答语是“Thank you.”而在中国的文化中,人们面对夸奖,常说“您过奖了”、 “哪里,哪里。”(“Where, where?”)以表示谦逊。

2. 英国人收到礼物时,通常都会当着送礼人的面打开礼物,同时会说一些喜欢或赞美的话以表示谢意,送礼人此时常常附和说: “I'm glad you like it.” 而中国人往往说一些谦让的话“您太客气了。”“您这样做太破费了。”等。若用此表达方式对待英国人,对方肯定会觉得你不喜欢或对他的礼物不屑一顾。

3. 在西方, 别人给你做事、帮忙,别人向你问候或祝贺,别人给你鼓励或赞扬时, 不能直接说 No,而应该说Thank you。

4. 当别人问你要不要喝茶或吃点什么东西时,你若要喝或吃应说Yes, please,若你不想吃或喝应说 No,thank you.或 No,thanks.

5. 没得到或不需要对方的帮助可以说:Thank you all/just the same. Thank you anyway。

基本用语

a. Thank you (very much)./ Thanks (a lot)./ Many thanks. /Thanks for.... It's very kind of you to….

b. Not at all.    / That's all right.     / You're welcome.    /That's OK.    / It's a pleasure/

(It's) My pleasure。  Don't mention it.    I'm glad you like it.   It's really nothing at all.

  ★ 祝愿、祝贺和应答:

中西文化对比

A. 对于他人的祝愿、祝贺,英美人表示感谢(Thanks)。

B. 和大家同庆同欢乐, 回答用: The same to you / You, too.

C. I’m glad to hear that.  用于向对方主动告知的喜事表示祝贺或“附和”.

D. 西方人喜欢收到礼物时当场打开并大加赞赏说:Wonderful!/ Beautiful!/ What a nice present! / How nice a gift!并表示感谢!

E. 允许去玩乐说: Have a nice/good/pleasant/ wonderful time. / Have fun! 玩得开心点! 尽情去玩吧! 

F. 为人送行用: Have a good trip. / Have a pleasant journey. / Good luck with your trip!

Good trip to you!  Nice journey to you!   祝旅途愉快!祝一路顺风!

基本用语

1. Best wishes to you!  I wish you good health.  Good luck and success to you!

Wish you success! May you success/ succeed!

2. Merry Christmas!   Happy birthday to you!  / Happy New Year!

3. Congratulations (on…)!   Well done!     Good luck with…/ Good luck to you!

4. Enjoy your vacation!     Enjoy your stay in China.

1. ---Shall I give you a ride as you live so far away?  ---Thank you. _________.

A. It couldn’t be better   B. Of course you can   C. If you like   D. It’s up to you

2. ---- Can I help you with your homework?    ---- No, I can manage it myself. _____.

A. Thank you anyway.    B. Many thanks      C. I’m sorry.     D. You are very kind.

3. ---I had a really good weekend at my uncle's.   ---___.

A. Oh, that very nice of you  B. Congratulations  C. It’s a pleasure  D. Oh, I’m glad to hear that

4. ---These are certainly beautiful flowers. Thank you so much.  ---__________.

A. No, no. It's nothing   B. You are welcome   C. Yes, I agree   D. Yes, I think so too .

5. ---I was worried about chemistry, but Mr. Brown gave me an A !   ---__________.

A. Don't worry about it      B. Congratulations! That's a difficult course

C. Mr. Brown is very good    D. Good luck to you

6. ---Congratulations! You won the first prize in today's speech contest.  ---__________.

A. Yes, I beat the others     B. No, no. I didn't do it well   C. Thank you   D. It's a pleasure

7. ---Well done. Congratulations on your success. ---__________.

A. Thank you very much        B. Oh, no, no

C. No, I didn't do very well      D. Sorry, I couldn't be any better

8. ---You have lovely children.   ---__________.

A. No, no, they are not.     B. Oh, no, no    C. You are talking too much    D. Thanks

9. ---Thank you ever so much for the book you sent me.  --- ___.

A. No, thanks  B. I’m glad you like it   C. Please, don’t say so   D. No, it’s not so good

  10. -- Don't forget to phone me when you get home. Just to let me know you've arrived safely.

-- I won't forget. Good-bye then.     -- ____

A. With pleasure   B. Have a nice trip   C. Don't mention it   D. It's very kind of you

11. ---I’ll go to Mike’s birthday party, Dad.    ---________.

    A. Have fun     B. Good idea     C. It doesn’t matter    D. Be a man.

12. -----Hi, haven’t seen your for ages! You look fine!  -----_______. You look well, too.

A. Great        B. Thanks       C. Oh, no        D. Not at all.

13. ---It’s been a wonderful evening. Thank you very much.    ---_____.

    A. My pleasure    B. I’m glad to hear that      C. No, thanks      D. It’s OK

14. ----Mike, our team will play against that of Class One this weekend. I'm sure we will win.  ----______!

A. Congratulations      B. Cheers       C. Best wishes       D. Good luck

15. Sara:Good evening, Mick. I'm so glad you could come.    

Mick:_______, Sara.

   Sara:Please come in and take a seat.      

Mick:______. Happy birthday to you, Sara. This is for you.

   Sara:A gift for me?                    

Mick:Sure. Congratulations on this happy day.

   Sara:_______. (Open the gift)Oh, it's lovely and very beautiful.     

Mick:________.

16. Li Gang:Hello, Sam. Happy Christmas and New Year!               

Sam:____________ .

Li Gang:Wish you every success in the coming year.                

Sam:____________.

Li Gang:May New Year bring your family happiness and good health. 

Sam:________ your best wishes.

Li Gang:What a wonderful snow!        

Sam:Yes. In fact, this is the first white Christmas in my life.

 四、道歉、遗憾和应答(责备和抱怨; 提醒)

中西文化对比

中国人喜欢反复强调自己的谦意,并喜欢用“非常抱歉”、“深表歉意”等表示程度倾向的语句,而英美人士则不同,对于因客观原因而造成的过失或差错,不必主动工过分向对方表示歉意。如一定要向对方道歉,说声 sorry 即可,一般不用 very , terribly , truly 等表示程度的词。因为在美国,过分的道歉或自责反而显得不太诚恳,令人感到虚假或另有用心。

对于不能去做或已经发生的不幸的事情, 西方人表示遗憾说: What a pity/ shame! 表示同情说: I'm sorry to hear that.    Bad luck!

基本用语

1. (I'm)Sorry./ I'm sorry for/about…/ I'm sorry to do sth. / I'm sorry to have done sth…  2. Excuse/ Pardon me ( for… )     3. Please forgive me for... (请原谅…)

4. sb. be afraid that…            5. What a pity/shame! / It's a pity that…

A. It is not important.  That's OK.  That's all right.  It's quite all right.  Never mind.

It doesn't matter (at all).  Not at all.  It's nothing. /That's nothing. (没关系)

Please don't worry.   It's nothing to worry about.  Not to worry.  Don't mention it.

It doesn't really matter.   Please think nothing of it.  Let's forget it. / No harm done.

B. That's not your fault.   It's not your fault.   It was me to blame.   (这是我的错)

It was all my fault to have done...    (这都是我的错…)

That's okay. Don't let it bother you.  (没事,别想的太多了)

We really didn't mean that at all.    (我们真的没有那样的意思)

注意要点

Excuse me通常用于下列情形:需要打断别人谈话或工作时;有求于他人时;因故需要暂时离开时;就某事表示不同意见时;自己的言行将会影响他人时。(即:说或做可能令人不悦的事情之前使用以引起别人注意)。注意: 打扰别人,意为“劳驾”;请求别人让路;向别人问路,打听消息,意为“对不起,请问…”。 回答时说:“Yes?”;

Sorry用于说话人做了错事或无意中与别人发生冲撞时于事后向他人表示歉意;也可表示因不能满足他人要求或请求而表示歉意。

“I beg your pardon.”用来表示听话人未能听清楚他人所说的话,而希望说话人重复所说的话时的礼貌用法,“没听清话语, 而要麻烦再说一遍.”。

I’m sorry to hear it/ that. 则是对说话者本人或近亲属已经发生的不幸, 进行安慰。

 

★ 责备和抱怨

中西文化差异

西方人说话比较直率。对于别人的打扰,自己受到的不公平待遇会以“提醒”、“明确表示”等方式说出来,但是不会不留面子。

一般对责备与抱怨,人们通常的反应是表示抱歉(I’m sorry)与愿意接受。

基本用语

A. 英语中责备与抱怨的话通常有:What on earth is the matter here? (到底发生了什么事?)

I'm afraid I have a complaint to make about the service.         (我对你们的服务有意见。)

You ought to be ashamed of what you've done on me.   (你应为你对我所做的事感到羞愧。)

Why on earth did you say such a silly thing to me?      (你对我说这种蠢话究竟是什么意思?)

You ought to be careful enough next time.             (你下次再不能这样粗心了。)

It's no nice of you to behave like that.                 (你那样做太不像话。)

I am ashamed of you.  我为你感到羞耻。  You can't do that to me.  你不能这样对我。

Why can’t you do something about it? How dare you do that?  你怎幺敢这样做?

Can't you see?  你难道没看见吗? What do you mean by doing so?  你那样做是什幺意思?

What on earth is the matter? 究竟发生了什幺事情? Why didn't you tell me the truth earlier?

Didn't I tell you to be here on time? 难道我没叫你准时到这里吗?

B. I’m sorry to have said that, but....   It's my fault,I am to blame. 这是我的过错, 我该罚。

It's none of your business.  你不要多管闲事。

★ 提醒:

基本用语

Don’t forget to....  Don’t you remember the days when...?

Make sure that everything is OK now.      I must remind you of…

Be careful!

 

1. ----Oh dear! I’ve just broken a window.  ----       . It can’t be helped.

A. Never mind     B. All right      C. That’s fine            D. Not at all

2. ----James, I am sorry I used your computer when you were away this morning. ----        .

A. That’s all right  B. It’s a pleasure      C. You are welcome     D. Don’t mention it

  3. — Excuse me for interrupting you.   — ________ .

A. Take it easy       B. Don't excuse me        C. That's right      D. That's all right .

4. — I'm sorry to have got you into trouble.    — __________ .

A. Don't say so       B. No worry           C. It doesn't matter    D. Nothing

5.--- You haven't paid for it yet.  ---- _______.

A. Oh, I'm really very sorry.    B. No trouble at all.   C. That’s nothing   D. Never mind.

  6. ---My father is ill in hospital. I have to go and take care of him.  ---________.

    A. What a pity!    B. Don’t mention it   C. It’s OK.   D. I’m sorry to hear that.

7. ---Oh, sorry to bother you.    ---- _______.

A. That's okay    B. No, you can't    C. That's good   D. Oh, I don't know

8. ---Excuse me. I don't want to interrupt you but …   ---- _______.

A. Can I help you    B. Certainly, how dare you   C. It's quite all right   D. Yes, you did

9. ---Oh, I'm sorry. But I promise I'll be careful next time.   ---- _______.

A. It's nothing at all        B. Oh, never mind. It doesn't matter

C. Thank you.             D. There are no questions

10. ---My grandmother's taken ill and I've got to go down to the hospital.  ---- _______.

A. We are going to the same place.     B. Very sorry to hear it. I hope it's nothing serious

C. Really                          D. Let me go with you

11. ---Ed said that his boy fell off tree.     ---- _______.

A. Oh dear! I hope he wasn't hurt.     B. Oh, no. A luck boy

C. He might have broken his arm      D. Nothing serious

12. -- I was so sure that our experiment was going to succeed, but something went wrong at the last moment.

-- ____, but don't give it up.

A. You don't mean that   B. Find out the reason   C. Never mind    D. I'm sorry to hear that

13. --- I’m sorry I broke your mirror.  --- Oh, really? ________.

A. It’s OK with me     B. It doesn’t matter    C. Don’t be sorry    D. I don’t care

14. A : Come in, Mr Smith. Nice to see you.        

B : Nice to see you too. I'm very sorry to be late.

A : _________ . We're glad you could come.

B : I didn't quite remember the number of your house, so it took me a long time to find your house.

A : _________ that I didn't make myself clear.  

B : Oh, __________.

五、禁止和警告

基本常识

日常生活中,人们经常会碰到“禁止”“警告”的场合,如在博物馆里的No Touch (请勿触摸展品);影剧院里、公共汽车上的 No Smoking (不许抽烟);公园里座位旁边的 Wet Paint (油漆未干);交通要道处的 No Parking (禁止停车)等。

在正式场合,提醒对方注意,语气一般较为婉转,如:Please be sure to come earlier tomorrow.

当对方处于危险状态而没有注意到时,你应该及时提出警告以防不测。如情况危险,就用简短有力的祈使句。如:Take care! / Watch out! / Be careful! / Stop!

接受了别人的警告必须向对方表示感谢并简要说明理由, 甚至道歉。

禁止和警告通常是在一种紧急的语境中发出的,而且语言要简洁,因此祈使句是常见的表达方式。禁止和警告这一功能有时相当于威胁,但口气强弱有所不同。

表示禁止时常用:You mustn't  / You can't (不行) 。

表示警告时常用和:Take care. / Be careful! / Look out! / Mind out! 小心 Watch out! 当心! 等。

基本用语

You can't / Mustn't do ……   If you ……, you will ……     You had better not do ….

Don't smoke.      No noise, please.    No + doing…        Be sure not to do…

Look out!(紧急) / Take care!(提醒注意) / Be careful!  Look out for…/       Be careful with…

Make sure you lock the door when you leave!                  Mind the wet paint!

Mind your own business! 别管闲事!                   Watch out where you are walking.

No way. /  OK,I will.  / Sorry,I won't.

交际例句

1.-- Don't climb that ladder! It's broken.           -- OK. Thank you.

2.-- Look out! There's a car coming.               -- Oh, thank you.

3.-- You mustn't play on the street. It's dangerous.   -- No, we won't.

4.-- Don't touch the machine when it is working.     -- No, I won't. Thank you.

5.-- You are not allowed to smoke here.             -- Oh, I'm sorry.

1) — May I ____the book for another week?   — No, you ____. You must return it right now.

     A. lend; mustn't       B. keep; can't     C. have; needn't     D. borrow; mustn't

2) — ______ when you cross the street. There's so much traffic.   — Yes, I will.

     A. Take care     B. Make sure           C. Look out         D. Be careful

3) --- You can't walk your dog in the park.     ---_______.

A. Oh, I'm sorry. I'll never do it again.   B. Mind your own business.

C. Oh, thank you.                    D. I don’t think so. And I like it.

4) Robert:Are you holding the ladder, Jane?  

Jane:Yes, I am. Please be careful, Robert. Don't go too high.

Robert:___________. I'm OK.            

Jane:Look! There are some good apples over there.

Robert:Where?                        

Jane:Behind you! Can you reach them?

Robert:Oh, yes. I can see them, but I can't reach them.  

Jane:__________. It's dangerous! You're too high.

Robert:No, I'm not. Great! I can reach them now.

六、请求、允许(提出帮助; 提出建议和忠告、):

基本用语

a. May/ Can/Could I...? I wonder if I could/ can.... Do you mind if I do..? /Would you mind if I did…?

b. Yes/Sure/Certainly.  Yes, (do) please.  Of course (you may).  Go ahead, please. (有请!)

That's OK/all right.  Not at all.   With pleasure. 很乐意. 

c. I'm sorry you can't.    I'm sorry, but....    You'd better not.  All right./ OK.

▲ 对Would/Do you mind if…的回答。(首先要根据情况回答“是否介意”。如果真的介意, 都要委婉拒绝。不介意的答语:No, of course not. / Certainly not. / No, go ahead. / Not at all.  ……

介意的答语:I'm sorry you can't. / Sorry, but it's not allowed.  /You'd better not.

I would rather you didn't…  / I'm afraid…

▲对I wonder if I could/ can的回答:允许Sure, go ahead./ Yes, please do. / Yes. Of course. Certainly. 不允许I'm sorry, but…/ I'm afraid not./ No, please don't. / You'd better not.

交际例句

1.-- Please let me help you.              -- No, thanks. I can carry it.

2.-- Can I see your licence please?        -- OK.

3.-- May I call you James?              -- Of course, if you wish.

4.-- Could I borrow a pen please?        -- Of course. With pleasure.

5.-- Excuse me. May I use your dictionary? -- Yes, here you are.

6.-- May I ask you several questions?     -- Yes, of course.

★ 提供(帮助等)和应答

基本常识

1. 发现陌生人或不太熟悉的人有困难,一般用下列句子主动提供帮助。

Can I help you?  / What can I do for you?/   Is there anything I can do for you?

Do you want me to call you a doctor?  / Let me carry the luggage for you.

Would you like some coffee?

2. 如果是熟悉的人或朋友,可直接问对方需要什么帮助。

Would you like me to get you a book? / Do you want me to call you a taxi?

If you don't mind, I'll go and buy them for you.   / Here, take my umbrella.

3. 不需要别人帮助时,还是得先表示谢意。Please don't worry. I can manage it myself.

Please don't bother .Thank you all the same.    No, thanks.

基本用语

1. Can / Could / Shall I help you?     2. Would you like me to…?

3. Do you want me to…?            4. Would you like some……?

Thanks. That would be nice/fine. / That's very kind your help. /Thank you for your help.

Yes, please. / Here, take this/my… (接受帮助)

No, thanks/thank you.              No, thanks/thank you. I can manage it myself.

Thank you all the same.            That's very kind of you, but…

★ 提出建议和忠告

中西文化差异

以建议或者劝告的形式要某人做一件事,不同于直接命令,因为说话人只是提出建议,而把做与不做的决定权留给听话人。

对于他人提出的建议和忠告,若认为可以接受,要表示赞赏或感谢。

对于他人提出的建议和忠告, 我们不能使用汉语式的表达“我同意”(I agree。)因为,英语中的I agree(with you)一般用来表示“同意对方的观点、看法等”。

基本用语

1. I advise you (not) to do … / you'd better (not) do … / I suggest that you (should) do … / Why not do … / Why don't you do …; How/ What about doing…/ Shall we…?/ Let’s…

2. Yes, I suppose so. / Yes, I certainly will. / Yes, but don't you think …?

That's great.  Good idea. / That's a good idea. / Why not?

3. That's impossible, but thank you all the same.   这不可能,但还是要谢谢你的。

It's not our fault. I'm afraid I can't do that.     这不是我的错,恐怕我作不了主。

I'm afraid I can't follow your advice.   / I'm afraid not.

1. ----There is an hour to go. Could we seat somewhere to have a drink?  ----________

A. Have a try    B. Sure   C. Don't go please   D. No, I can't

2. ---What about another coffee?   ----__________.

A. No, thanks    B. You're so kind   C. Yes, of course   D. Sorry for the trouble

3. --Let's go swimming, shall we?  -_____________.

A. It's my pleasure    B. It doesn't matter   C. I agree with you   D. Yes, let's go.

4. ---In my opinion, you'd better take a couple of days off.  ---_______.

A. I will take your advice   B. Let me see    C. Never mind   D. I'm afraid so

5. ---Please tell Dived not to drink too much.    ---__________.

A. OK, let's go    B. I see    C. It's time for lunch   D. Please have a drink

6. ---What about having a drink?    ---____.

A. Good idea            B. Help yourself      C. Go ahead, please     D. Me, too

7. --I'd like to invite you to dinner this Saturday, Mr. Smith.     ---____.

A. Oh, no, let's not                        B. I’d rather stay at home.

C. I'm very sorry, but I have other plans      D. Oh, no, That'll be too much trouble

8. ---Can I get you a cup of tea?    ---_____.

A. That’s very nice of you    B. With pleasure   C. You can, please   D. Thank you for the tea

9. ---Can I look at the menu for a few more minutes before I decide?  ----Of course. ______, sir.

A .Make yourself at home   B. Enjoy yourself   C. It doesn’t matter  D. Take your time

10. ---Do you think I could borrow your bicycle? ----_________

A. How come?     B. Take your time.    C. Yes, go on.   D. Yes, help yourself.

  11. ---Can I help you with your suitcase?    ---_________.

A. I have no idea  B. No, no. I can carry it myself  C. That's a good idea  D. Thank you. I can manage myself.

12. ---Can I help you to get it down?   ---__________

A. No problem   B. Yes. Let's get it   C. Thanks. It's so nice of you   D. It's no trouble at all

13. ---I wonder if you could help me?    ----___________.

A. I could     B. Yes, I do     C. No, not at all    D. Certainly

14. ----Please give me a hand, won't you?   --- _________.

A. Of course I will    B. You're welcome   C. You are so kind    D. Don't mention it

15. ---Oh, the box is too heavy.   ---__________.

A. What's in it   B. Can I help you to carry it   C. Whose is it   D. May I have a try

16. -Alice. you feed the bird today, __ ?    --But I fed it yesterday.

   A. do you         B. will you      C. didn't you      D. don't you

17. ----Would you mind my coming over and having a look at your new garden? My little daughter is so curious about those flowers you grow.    ----- ________. You're welcome.

A. Yes, I do    B. Never mind   C. Yes, please       D. Not at all

18. ----Do you mind my smoking here?   ----___.

A. Yes, please    B. No, of course not   C. Yes, as you like    D. No, you can't.

19.---Would you mind me smoking here?      --_______ . It's non-smoking area here.

  A. Yes, please          B. I’m afraid I've to say yes      C. No, please          D. No, you can't

20. Rose: Hi, Tom. You are carrying so many books.      

Tom: Yes, they are very heavy.

Rose: Can I give you a hand?                       

Tom: ________. I'm told you are busy these days.

Rose: Certainly, we'll have our final exam.

Tom: What can I do for you then? Can I help you with your English?

Rose: Please don't bother. __________.

七、表达感情:

基本用语

A . Expressing anxiety   (焦虑)

1. What's wrong? / What's the matter ( with you )? / Is there anything the matter?

2. Oh, what shall I / we do?    3. Oh, what shall I/we do?  We were all anxious about....

B . Expressing surprise  (惊奇)

1. Really? / / Is that so? (是真的吗?)    Oh dear?/ My God!  (哦, 我的天)

2. Good heavens! My Goodness! / Goodness! / Thank Goodness! ( “庆幸”自己没遭遇不幸)

3. I can hardly believe my ears.

C. Expressing pleasure  (喜悦)

1. I'm glad / pleased / happy to…    2. That's nice / wonderful / great.

3. Hopefully tomorrow will turn fine.

1. -- Bruce was killed in a traffic accident.         -- ____ I talked with him yesterday morning!

A. What a pity!      B. I beg your pardon?    C. Sorry to hear that.     D. Is that so?

2. –-My father was killed in a traffic accident.      --________.

  A. Oh, my God      B. It’s impossible        C. Take it easy           D. I’m sorry to hear that.

3. --- You didn't get hurt at all in the traffic accident?   --- _____. I was a lucky dog.

A. No problem      B. I don't think so         C. I'm afraid not     D. Good heavens no

4. A : What a nice dress ! Mary, you look beautiful today.

B : _______ . You look beautiful, too! Where did you get your lovely new hat?

A : It's a birthday present from my sister.    B : Your sister has a very good taste. The hat is really beautiful.

A : ________ for your compliments (夸奖) . …

A:______ ! What's the matter with you, young man? You almost ride over me!

C :___________ , madam . I really didn't see you. Are you hurt?

A : Well, _________ , I'm not hurt.                                   C : _________?

A : Yes . Good heavens! Look at my new dress! Today is my first wear.     C : I beg your pardon , madam .

A : For God's sake (看在上帝份上), I'll let you pass. But do be careful next time! It's really dangerous to ride so fast in the street.

B: Thank you. ___________.

八、肯定与不肯定(同意和不同意、可能与不可能)

中西文化对比

对某件事情的真实性是否肯定,是否有把握,在英语中常用 sure, certain, doubt 等词或may , might , must 等情态动词表达。may , might 具有试探性,must 表示一种逻辑推断的必然。此外,为了增强客气的口吻,表示不肯定时可以伴随一些表示遗憾、担忧或歉意的表达方式。

基本用语

a. I’m sure(of that).   I’m sure(that)...   It is certain that… (不能说it is sure that…)

b. I’m not sure(of that).  I’m not sure whether/if....  I doubt if....

There is no doubt about it.   I have no doubt about it 对此事我敢肯定。

Not a hope. 不可能。  No chance at all. 一点也不可能。 out of the question. 不可能

Yes, certainly. / No, certainly not. / Yes, it sure / certainly is. / No, it certainly isn't.

 

★ 同意与不同意:

中西文化对比

同意和不同意是肯定和否定的另一种形式,但表达的不是某个事实的正确与否,而是对它的判断和意见。

西方人如果对一令人不愉快的意见表示同意时,可能加上一些表示遗憾之类的词语更为合适。

对某件事的真实性是否有把握,可以用委婉的语气进行推测。

基本用语

a. 表同意: Certainly/Sure/Of course.  No problem.  Yes, please.  Yes, I think so.  That’s true.

All right/OK. Good! / Excellent! / That's fine! What a good idea!  That’s a good idea....

It’s a good idea that....   I/We agree (with you).   That's the right thing to do!

b. 不同意: No, I don’t think so.  I’m afraid not.  I’m afraid I (really) can’t agree with you.

It's not very nice.  I don't think that is a good idea.  Do you think that is a good idea?

Personally, I feel that it's unwise.   What a terrible idea.   What a terrible thing to do!

c. No way!    Exactly (说得对. 正是)

交际例句

1.-- I think the shop is closed at this time of day.         -- No, I think it's open.

2.-- I think foreign languages are more interesting than science.

-- I really can't agree with you. I prefer science.

3.-- I think I shall read a book instead.

-- Good idea. That's much better than watching a bad TV Programme.

4.-- I think Chinese is more popular than any other subject. -- Maybe. But I prefer art.

5.-- Don't think in Chinese when you're speaking English.  -- You are quite right.

★ 可能与不可能:  

基本用语

a. He can/may....  It is possible that.... It is likely that....

b. He may not....   Sb. is not likely to do/ that …(不能说: sb is possible to do/ that…).

c. It looks as if / though it might rain later.  It appears to me that we’ll have to go on foot.

d. We’ll probably do …. / I doubt if ….

e. That’s / It’s quite impossible / It’s very unlikely. That’s hardly possible.

That’ll never happen . / Probable not.

f. Perhaps/Maybe.           It's up to you.  (由你决定)     It depends.  (看情况再说)

It's hard to say  (难说).     I can't decide.   (我拿不定主意)。

 

1. ---What kind of TV program do you like best?  ----_________.

A. I like them very much.        B. I only watch them at weekend

C. It's hard to say, actually       D. I'm too busy to say

2. ---I really enjoy pop music. What's your favorite?  ----_________. 

A. No, not at all    B. Neither do I   

C. So did I    D. Well, actually I like classical music

3. ---It's a great race! Do you agree?  ----_________. 

A. Yes, it is really disappointing        B. No, I like it

C. No, it's worth seeing it             D. Yes, it's really exciting

4. ---Are you sure about that?  ----_________. 

A. You needn't worry about that      B. I like the idea

C. Oh, no. I'm afraid of that          D. Oh yes, I'm absolutely positive

5. ---You may have seen this film?  ----_________.

A. It is said to cost much   B. It will be shown next week 

C. Actually, I haven't      D. You may too

6. ----People should stop using their cars and start using public transport.

----_________ . The roads are too crowded as it is.

A. All right    B. Exactly    C. Go ahead     D. Fine

7. ---- It'll take at least 2 hours to do this!   ---- Oh, _______. I could do it in 30 minutes.

     A. come on    B. pardon me   C. you are right   D. don' t mention it

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